(s)ker-4, (s)kerǝ-, (s)krē-

    (s)ker-4, (s)kerǝ-, (s)krē-
    English meaning: to cut
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘schneiden”
    Material: I. A. O.Ind. ava-, apa-skara- “Exkremente (Ausscheidung)”; kr̥ṇüti, kr̥ṇōti “verletzt, slays “ (lex.), utkīrṇ a- “ausgeschnitten, eingeritzt”, samutkīrṇ a- “durchbohrt”; O.Ind. cárman-, Av. čarǝman- “fell, fur, skin”; presumably O.Ind. kr̥vi- (unbel.) “ein Webergerät” (: Russ. dial. červь ‘sickle”, Lith. kir̃vis “axe” (?); Arm. k”orem “I scratch”, k”erem ‘scratch, scrape “; Gk. κείρω (κερῶ, ἐκάρην, κέκαρμαι, καρτός) “abschneiden; shave, shear; abfressen”, κέρμα n. ‘schnitzel, small Mũnze”, κορμός m. “(abgeschnittener) clot, chunk, trunk”, κορμάζω “zerstũckle”; κόρις m. “bedbug” (= Russ. korь f. “Motte”: “incisive, biting, zerbeißend”); gen. καρός “Nichts” in τίω δέ μιν ἐν καρὸς αἴσῃ, compare also καριμοίρους τοὺς ἐν μηδεμιᾳ μοίρᾳ... Hes., further ἀκαρί n. “Milbe”, ἀκαρής, ἀκαριαῖος “winzig”, Hes.; “incisive” seems die basic meaning from κάρνος and κάρ “louse” Hes.; to latter perhaps κάρον, κάρος “Kũmmel” (from the Ä hnlichkeit of Kũmmelkornes with a louse ); with Gk. κώρυκος “leather sack” compare Ir. curach “Hautboot”, Welsh corwg, cwrwg ds. from *kŏrukos; compare further O.Ice. hǫrr “Leinenkleid”, O.H.G. harra ‘sack, bag”; with a meaning ‘schneidender derision, ridicule” here κέρτομος “höhnend”, κερτομέω “höhne, lästere” (*κερ-στομος “ein Lästermaul habend”? in 1. part ein root noun [s]ker-, or ein -[e]sstem *ker-s-); σκέραφος, κέραφος “reprimand” Hes., σκέρ-βολος λοίδορος, σκερβολεῖ ἀπατᾳ Hes., σκερβόλλω ‘schmähe”; Alb. hirrë f. “Molke” (*sker-nü; das h after harr); Lidén KZ. 61, 9 f.; Alb. sh-kjer “reiße apart”, harr (*skor-n-) “cut, bite from, jäte”, tsharɛ ‘spoil, verwũsten, sich separate”, tshartës ‘scharfrichter”, lengthened grade korr, kuarr (*kēr-n-ō) ‘schneide ab, ernte”; Lat. corium “ thick skin, bag, leather”; carō, carnis f. “Fleisch”, originally ‘stũck Fleisch” as pl. carnēs; Umbr. karu “part”, dat. karne, abl. pl. karnus “carnibus”, Osc. carneis “partis”; Umbr. kartu “distribuito”; Lat. curtus “ abbreviated, mutilated” (*kr̥-tó-); O.Ir. scar(a)im (*skerü-mi) “I slit, separate”, Welsh ysgar “Trennen”, gwa-sgar ‘scatter”; Kaus.-iterative O.Ir. scu(i)rim ‘spanne die Pferde ab”, scor “ paddock for abgespannte Zugtiere”; auf a to-participle in addition based on M.Ir. aurscartad (*air-uss-scart-) “Fegen, Reinigen”, diuscart(a)im (*dī-uss-scart-) “entferne”; Welsh ysgarthu, dyscarthu “clean”, ysgarth “rubbish, Spũlicht”, carthen “purgatoria” under likewise; M.Ir. scairt “net um die Gedärme, Zwerchfell”; Ir. cert ‘small”; nicht certainly covered is M.Ir. coire ‘sword” (see under Goth. haírus); Ir. curach, Welsh corwg, cwrwg “Hautboot” to Gk. κώρυκος? see above; O.Ice. skera “cut, clip, prick, abmachen”, O.H.G. sceran ‘shave, shear, abschneiden”, O.E. scieran ds., O.S. sker-sahs ‘schermesser”; O.H.G. scero “Maulwurf”, Ger. Schermaus, Nor. vatn-skjer under likewise ‘spitzmaus” (compare under O.E. scierfe-mūs ‘spitzmaus”); Kaus.-Iter. O.H.G. scerian, O.S. skerjan, O.E. scierian “allot, decide, define, ordain, determine”; O.Ice. skǫr f. “hair; edge; end”, O.E. scearu f. “das Haarschneiden; allotment “, O.H.G. scara “Heeresabteilung, troop, multitude, crowd etc.”, M.L.G. schare f. ds. (out of it O.Ice.skǫr f., skari m. “troop, multitude, crowd, bulk, mass”); with not clear meaningdevelopment O.H.G. haram-skara, O.S. harm-skara, O.E. hearm-scearu “ punishment, plague”; O.H.G. scar, scaro m., scara f. “ plowshare “, O.E. scear m. n. ds., Nor. skere (*skarjan-) ds.; O.Ice. sker n. (*skarja-) “cliff” (out of it M.L.G. schere f. “Felszacke, cliff”, Ger. Schäre); ablaut. O.E. score “(felsiges) seashore, Kũste”, scorian “overhang, from Klippen under likewise”, M.L.G. schore, schare “Kũste, bank, border, shore”, next to which with -rr-: O.H.G. scorra ‘schroffer Fels”, scorrēn “hervorragen, from rocks or bone”; O.Ice. skarðr “ damages, verstummelt, verringert”, O.S. skard “zerhauen, verwundet”, O.H.G. scart, M.H.G. schart “zerhauen, schartig”, O.E. sceard ds., O.Ice. skarð n. ‘scharte, hole, lack, damage, pity”, M.H.G. Ger. scharte, O.E. sceard n. “piece, fragment”, ablaut. O.Ice. skorða f. “cloven staff”, “am oberen end cloven pad” (compare in similar meaning M.L.G. schore, schare ‘strebepfahl, pad” = Eng. shore); O.Ice. skor f. “ incision, incisure, crack”, M.L.G. schore m. ds., nnd. schör, schär “frail, breakable, brittle “; O.Ice. skyr n. (*skurja-) “ coagulated milk” (: skera-sk ‘sich divide = curdle, coagulate, harden “); skurðr m. “das Schneiden”; O.H.G. skerm, skirm ‘shield (“*from Häuten”), protection, Bedeckung”, M.H.G. scherm, schirm, O.H.G. skirmen (*skirmjan), O.S. biskirmian “beschirmen”; s-los perhaps O.Ice. hǫrund n. “Fleisch”; M.H.G. häre, härwer “herb” (“incisive of taste”; Proto-Gmc. *har-wa in finn. karvas “herb”); Goth. haírus, O.Ice. hjǫrr, O.E. heoru, O.S. heru m. ‘sword” (see above M.Ir. coire); lengthened grade O.H.G. scür, scüra, pl. scüri ‘scissors”, O.S. sküra f. ds., O.E. scēar “Pflugscher”, pl. scerero, O.Ice. skǣ ri n. pl. ‘scissors”, hrǣ -skǣ rr “in Leichen hackend (eagle)”; M.H.G. schuor f. ‘schur”, O.Ice. skø̄ ra “fight, struggle”; Lith. skiriù, skìrti, Ltv. šḱ ir̃ t ‘separate, divide”, Lith. karnà f. “Lindenbast”, Ltv. àizkar̂t “anrũhren”; Lith. kę̃ra, kẽro, kérti ‘sich loslösen”; skarà ‘scrap, shred, rag”; O.Pruss. kērmens “body” (see under); Lith. kir̃vis , Ltv. cirvis “axe”; presumably of concept the abgespaltenen Hautschuppe from: Lith. karaĩ pl. ‘steinpocken” (Slav. Lw.?), prakarùs “maserig, of wood”; Russ. korь f. “ measles “ and “Motte” (“*Schererin”); aRuss. kora “bark”, Russ. etc. korá “bark, crust”; whereof among others Church Slavic koricę pl. “Zimt”, Russ. koríca ds., kórka “bowl, bark, crust”, korětь “hard become”, Bulg. koráv “ stiff, hard”, Serb. o-kòreti se “ stiff, hard become” etc. (O.C.S. korьcъ “a measure of capacity “, Russ. koréc “Mũhlkasten; scoop etc.”, Slov. korec “Körbchen under likewise”; perhaps to O.Ind. carú- “Kessel” etc., s. kʷer-); Russ. dial. červь ‘sickle” (= Lith. kir̃vis , O.Ind. kr̥vi-, see above); Bal.-Slav. *kermen- and keru̯a- n. “belly, body” in O.Pruss. kērmens m. “body”; Slav. *červo n. in O.C.S. črě vo “lower abdomen, belly”, Russ. čerë vo ds. etc. (originally “ausgeschnittene Tiereingeweide”); doubtful O.C.S. črě vьjь ‘sandal”, Russ. old čerevьji pl. ‘schuhe” etc. (*’skin, leather”?); Church Slavic krъnъ “mutilated”, okrъniti “amputieren”, Russ. dial. kórnyj “from kleinem growth, short”, kornátь ‘stutzen”, (etc. = O.Ind. -kīrṇ a-); presumably (as “abgeschnittene shaft, pole”) O.C.S. krъma “ rudder, helm, Hinterende of Schiffes”, r. kormá ‘schiffshinterteil” etc.; perhaps R.C.S.črě nъ “Handgriff”, Russ. čé ren “Heft, Stiel, handle, grasp eines Messers; Pfropfen”. B. Dental extensions: α) (s)ker-d-: Illyr. Scordus (mons), ΢κάρδον (ὄρος): Lith. skardùs ‘steil” see under (Jokl, Eberts Reallex. 6, 37); O.Ir. scerdid “kratzt ab”; Maybe Alb. (*skord-) kodrë “hill” after den divided Wurzelknollen: Gk. σκόρ(ο)δον n. “ garlic “, Alb. hurdhë, hudhrë ds. (*skord-); O.H.G. scherze, scherzel “abgeschnittenes Stũck”; O.H.G. scurz ‘short” (M.H.G. schũrzen “kũrzen”, schurz “gekũrztes garment”, Ger. Schurz, Schũrze), O.E. scort ‘short”, scortian “kũrzer become, fehlen, lack” (scyrte f. ‘schurz, Hemd”; Eng. short ‘short”, shirt “Hemd”), O.Ice. skorta “fehlen, lack”, skort n., skortr m. “lack”; with other Vokalstellung (influence of Gmc. *skraut-, *skrut-?) M.L.G. schratelen “carve, slit”; maybe Alb. (*scyrte) shkurt ‘short”
    Note: Illyr. TN Scordisci meant: “ men with shirts, kilts (like women)” hence Alb. (*skodra) kodra “hill” actually meant: “(*short) low mountain, low hill” [common drop of initial s- in Alb. sk > k] Lith. skerdžiù , sker̃sti “(Schweine) schlachten”, Ltv. šḱ ę̄ ržu, šḱ e”rst ‘split, aufschneiden”, Lith. skérdžiu, skérdėti “Risse bekommen”, ablaut. skardūti ‘schroten”; skardùs ‘steil”, skar̃dis m. ‘steiles bank, border, shore” (see above Illyr. Scordus), skurdùs “painful”, nuskur̃des “zerlumpt”, E.Lith. skurstù, skur̃sti “lack leiden”; Ltv. skürdî t ‘split up, cut up, divide”, Lith. suskir̃dusios kójos “aufgesprungene Fũße”, O.Pruss. scurdis “Bicke, Mũhleisen”, O.C.S. o-skrъdъ m. “tool zum Behauen the Steine”, Russ. oskórd “big hatchet”, skorodá “harrow”, Cz. oskrd “Mũhleisen, Spitzhammer”;nasal. Lith. skrándas “alter Pelz”, skrañdis “Viehmagen”, Ltv. skrandas pl. “rag, clout”, O.Pruss. scrundos pl. ‘scissors”. About sker-dh- see below esp. Schlagwort. β) (s)ker-t-, (s)kre-t-: O.Ind. kr̥ntáti newer kartati “cuts, slices” = Av. kǝrǝntaiti (besides kǝrǝnaoiti = O.Ind. kr̥ṇōti, above S. 938) “cuts, slices; schindet”; participle perf. pass. kr̥ttá- (Av. -kǝrǝsta-); O.Ind. kartanam “das Schneiden”, kr̥tí- m. or f. “knife”, Av. karǝti- “knife”, Pers. kürd ds.; O.Ind. karta- m. ‘separation, Unterscheidung”, kartá- m. “pit, pothole, hole” (küṭ á “depth, ground” out of it mind. development), perhaps Av. -kaša- “bay”; es can partizipiale toformations zur the abbreviated root form sker- vorliegen; O.Ind. kŕ̥tti- f. “fell, fur”, ni-kr̥tti- “Niedermetzlung”; O.Ind. kŕ̥tvaḥ “...Male”, -kŕ̥t e.g.sa-kŕ̥t, Av. ha-kǝrǝt̃ “once”, originally “with a Hieb”, as in O.Ind. sakr̥d-üchinná - “auf einmalabgetrennt”, Av. hakǝrǝt̃ -jan- “auf einmal tötend” (compare O.C.S. kratъ “mal”, Lith. kar̃tas ds.); O.Ind. kaṭu- (mi. from *kart-u-) “(*incisive) sharp, biting” (: Lith. kartùs “bitter”); Arm. k”ert”em “pull die skin ab, schäle ab”; Alb. kjëth ‘schere” (*kertō); Lat. cortex “bark, Borke”, scortum “fell, fur, Tierhaut, Hure”, cēna “meal” = Osc. kersnu “cēna”, kerssnaís “cēnis” (*kert-snü ‘share”); Umbr. śesna “cēnam”, c̨ersnatur “cēnüti”; O.H.G. herdo “vellus”, O.E. heorda m. “fell, fur”, Ger. Swiss herde, härde ‘sheep- or goatskin “; O.E. herðan pl. “testicles” (“*Hautsack”; from *haruÞjan) with other Vokalstellung O.Ice. hreðjar pl. “Hodensack”; perhaps here also Goth. hairÞra, O.H.G. herdar n., O.E.hreðer m. “ intestines, entrails “; lengthened grade the 2. syllable in M.L.G. schrüt (-d-) “ein in the Länge abgeschnittenes Stũck”, schrüden “abschneiden”, schrüt (-d-) “ slantwise (eine other Linieschneidend)”; at most to-participle zur basis skrē-; nasalized (Gmc. *skrenÞ-, compare O.Ind. kr̥ntati): O.H.G. skrindan, -tan “break, crack, Risse bekommen”, Nor. skrinda “ incisure “; zero grade O.H.G. scrunda, -ta “col, gap, crack”, Ger. Schrund(e), Nor. skrunda “hutch”; with gradation M.H.G. schranz(e) “crack, slit, geschlitztes garment “ (O.H.G. *scrantussa, compare scruntussa “crack”); wFris. schrander ‘sharp” (from Verstand), etc.; without s-: M.L.G. uprinden “aufbersten” (from Wunden); Lith. kertù kir̃sti “haue sharp, schlage violent”, kir̃stas “beaten”, Ltv. cę̄ ̀ rtu, cìrst “hew, hit, hacken”; Lith. kir̃tis “Hieb”, O.Pruss. kirtis ds., Lith. ker̃slas “Aderlaßeisen” (*kert-s-lo-), besides ker̃stas “Lanzette”; O.Pruss. kersle “hoe, axe” (= Russ. čé resló etc.); Lith. karsa “cave”(*kartsü), Lith. kartùs, O.Pruss. nom. pl. kürtai “bitter”; O.Pruss. scordo (consigns stordo) ‘schwarte” i.e. “menschliche Kopfhaut” (Balt *skartü); Lith. kertùkas ‘spitzmaus” (: Clr. čerté ć “große dormouse “, compare of einfachen *sker- O.H.G. scero “Maulwurf” etc.); Lith. kar̃tas “mal”, víens kart víens “einmal eins”, Ltv. viênkǜršs ‘simple, just” (see above to O.Ind. kŕ̥tvas, -kr̥t), Lith. kartà “Lage, layer “, Ltv. kǜ rta “order, layer, Lage”; Lith. kirtas “Tierlager”; as “abgeschnittenes Stũck Holz” Lith. kártis “ shaft, pole”, Ltv. kãrts ds., O.Pruss. kartano f. ds.; Balt *karta- “trough” (out of it finn. kartta ds.) in O.Pruss. pra-cartis m. ds., Lith. prãkartas ds.; besides Proto-Slav.. *karūta- n. “trough, trough” in Church Slavic koryto “alveus”, Russ. korūto “trough, trough” etc.; with through das nasal present bedingter other Vokalstellung Lith. krintù, kritaũ, krìsti “abfallen, from Blättern, Frũchten” (compare O.Ind. kr̥ntátram “cleft, gap, col, gap, Zerklũftung”); O.C.S. na-črъtati “ὑπογράψαι”, R.C.S. črъtu, črě sti “cut, clip”, Russ. old o-čeresti “eine limit, boundary decide, define, ordain, determine” (etc.); Clr. čerté ć “big, giant dormouse “ (compare above to Lith. kertùkas); Clr. čeresló , Pol. trzosɫo “Pflugmesser, Sech”, Sloven. čre ́ slo, Cz. tříslo “Gerberlohe”; perhaps Russ. old čerešča, mBulg. (ablaut.) o-črьšta, očrъšta “tent” (if “from Fellen or bark”, *k(e)rst-i̯-ü, compare O.Ind. kŕ̥t-ti-); perhaps Russ. (etc.) čerë t “ reed “ (from den schneidenden Blättern); Church Slavic kratъ-kъ (= O.Ind. kaṭu-, Lith. kartùs), Russ. korótkij ‘short” (etc.); O.C.S. sъ-kraštǫ , -kratiti “verkũrzen; sich short fassen, endigen”; O.C.S. kratъ in tri kraty “dreimal” etc., Pol. trzy-kroć ds. (etc., see above to Lith. kar̃tas “mal”); Hitt. kartüi- “abschneiden, beseitigen”. About perhaps cognate words for “quer” see under *skert-s- “quer”. C. guttural extension: *krok-no- in Welsh croen ‘skin”, pl. crwyn, O.Corn. croin ds.; croinoc “rubeta” > Corn. cronek “crapaud” besides *krok-inü in Gaul.-Lat. crocina “mastruca”, O.C.S. kruzno, Russ. korzno ds.; out of it borrowed O.H.G. krusina, kursinna (wherefore Ger. Kũrschner), O.Fris. kersna, LateO.E. crus(e)ne “Pelzrock”, M.Lat. crusina; *krokkeno- in M.Ir. crocann, Ir. croiceann ‘skin”, Bret. kroc”hen, M.Corn. crōghen ds. D. Labial extensions: α) (s)kerb/h/-, (s)kreb(h)-: M.Ir. cerb ‘sharp, incisive”, cer(b)aim “cut, bite”; O.E. sceorpan ‘scratch, scrape, gnaw “ (probably also “*cut, clip”, compare sceorp “dress”); O.Ice. skarpr “eingeschrumpft, lean, strong, sharp”, O.E. scearp, O.S. skarp ‘sharp, rough, bitter”, O.H.G. scarf, scarph, M.H.G. scharf, -pf “rough, incisive”; O.H.G. skurfen, scurphen, M.H.G. schũr(p)fen “aufschneiden, disembowel, (fire) anschlagen”, Ger. schũrfen; Bal.-Slav. *skirbü f. “Ritze” (*skerbhü) in Ltv. šḱ ir̃ ba f. “Ritze, col, gap”, ablaut. šḱ erbala and skarba f. ‘splinter” and skar̂bs (= Ger. ‘scharf”) ‘sharp, rough”; in addition Lith. skirbti “ sour become”, Ltv. šḱ erbs “herb, sour”; Slav. *ščьrbъ m., *ščьrba f. in Pol. szczerb m. ‘scharte, incisure “, Slov. ščr̂ b ‘schartig”, ščŕ ba ‘scharte” etc.; Russ. ščerbá f. “crack, Scharte, scar”; Bal.-Slav. *skurbü (*skorbhü) in Lith. žem. skur̃bti “be in woefulness “, skur̃bė f. “ruefulness”, Ltv. skùrbstu, skùrbt “ senseless, unconscious become”; Slav. *skъrba f. in Slov. *škŕ ba ‘scharte, Zahnlũcke”, also Slav. skъrbь f. in O.C.S. skrъbь, R.C.S. skъrbь, Serb. skr̂b, Russ. skorbь “ruefulness, care “, skórbnutь “wither, wilt, mortify”, Slov. skrbẹ́ti “care for, worry”; Lat. scrobis m. f. “pit, pothole”; O.E. screpan ‘scratch, scrape”, M.H.G. schreffen st. V. “ rend, ritzen, scratch, scrape”; O.Ice. skrapa (*skrapōn) ‘scratch, scratch, scrape, scrape”, M.L.G. schrapen ds., M.H.G. schraffen “die skin ritzen, schröpfen”, schrapfe (*skrappṓ ) “tool zum Kratzen”, whereof schrapfen “ curry “, M.L.G. schrappen ‘scrape, scratch, scrape”; M.H.G. schrepfen (*skrapjan), Ger. ‘schröpfen”; Lith. skrebėt́ i “rustle, sough, rustle”, Ltv. skrabt “hollow out, scratch, scrape, scrape”, skrabinât “benagen”, skribinât ds. (neologism from *skrebinat); Lith. átskrabai m. pl. “offal”; R.C.S.o-skrebъ “abgeschabt habend”, Russ. skrebú, skrestí (skrestь, also skrebátь) ‘scrape, scratch, scrape”, Iterat. Cz. škrabati ‘scratch, scrape”; with reduced grade: Welsh crafu ‘scratch, scrape, rub, ausbeuten”; Ltv. kribinât “abnagen”; lengthened grade: skrēbh-, skrōbh-, with r-suffix the name the Hainbuche (after dem gesägten leaf): Alb. shko-zë (*skrēbh-r-), O.Pruss. scober-wis (*skrōbher-), Lith. skrúoblas (*skrōbh-ro-), newer skroblùs, but Ltv. (with secondary ü) skübardis, skübarde (*skrōbhar-) “Rotbuche”, s. Jokl WuS. 12, 71 ff., and compare Lith. skir̃pstas under S. 945; zero grade Gk. σκαρφᾶσθαι σκεδάννυσθαι Hes.; compare also gerbh-, above S. 386, and Welsh cramen S. 945. β) (s)kerp-, (s)krep-: O.Ind. kr̥püṇa- m. ‘sword”, kr̥püṇī f. ‘scissors, Dolch”; karpara- n. ‘shard” m. “bowl, cranium” (: O.Pruss. kerpetis “cranium”, O.C.S. črě pъ ‘shard”, O.H.G. scirbi ‘shard”); Alb. karpë, karmë (*korp-n-) “Fels, cliff” (compare Lat. saxum : secō; insecure krep, shkrep “Fels, slope”); in addition Thrac. Καρπάτης ὄρος “Karpaten”; Gk. καρπός “fruit” (“Abgeschnittenes, Abgepflũcktes”), καρπίζομαι, καρπόομαι “ernte”; κρώπιον ‘sickle” (IE *krōp-); with s- probably σκορπίος ‘scorpion, ein stachliger Seefisch”; Lat. carpō, -ere “pluck, abpflũcken”, originally “abtrennen”, glO.S.S. scarpo i.e. excarpo “eligo”, scarpinat ‘scripithaen” (O.E. “die hen scharrt”); carpinus “Hainbuche” etc. (after dem gesägten leaf); compare Hitt. karpina- “ein tree”; M.Ir. corrán ‘sickle”, cirrim ‘schlage ab, verstũmmle” (-rr- from -rp-) perhaps Ir. corr, Welsh cor “cusp, peak” (: σκορπίος); O.H.G. herbist, O.E. hærfest “autumn” (“time of Pflũckens, Erntens”; probably ein Superlativ *karpistos “ at best zum Pflũcken geeignet”); O.Ice. harfr m. herfi n. “harrow”; with s-: O.E. sceorfan st. V. “bite, zerfressen”, gesceorfan “tear, scrape”; scyrft “das Schneiden”, O.H.G. scirbi, M.H.G. schirbe, later scherbe ‘shard (*scharfkantig incisive); head, testa” (see above to O.Ind. karpara-), M.L.G. scherve “bowl”; O.H.G. scerf, M.L.G. scherf “halber Pfennig, kleinste Scheidemũnze”, Ger. Scherflein; O.E. scearfian (*skarƀōn) ‘scrape, tear” = M.L.G. scharven (besides scherven from *skarƀjan ) “in small Stũcke carve, slit”, O.H.G. scarbōn ds., M.L.G. scharf ‘shard”, O.Ice. skarfr ‘schräges Endstũck”, Nor. skarv “cliff”; maybe Alb. shkrep “cliff, rock”, shkrif ‘soften”? with other Vokalfolge: O.H.G. screvōn “incidere”, M.L.G. schreve m. “line (“*Ritzung”), line”, Swe. skreva “Felskluft”, O.Ice. skref n. “ footstep “ (“*cleft, gap”); O.E. scræf “cave”, M.H.G.schraf, schrave “zerklũftete Felsklippe”, M.L.G. schravel ‘spiky, schroff”; M.H.G. scrove, schroffe m. ‘spitzer (*schneidender) stone, cliff”, back formation Ger. adj. schroff; as “rissige, rough skin” here die Postverbalia O.Ice. skurfa f. ‘scurf, scab”, Swe. skorf, O.E. skurf, scēorf m. ‘scurf, scab, crust, eschar “ (to scēorfan, see above), O.H.G. scorf ds. (besides Nor. skorpa “crust”, M.H.G. besides schorf also schorpf from geminiertem *skorp[p]-), compare Lith. kárpa “ wart “, Ltv. kãrpa, kürpis ds.; Lith. kerpù, kir̃pti “with the Schere schneiden”, Iterat. karpūti, atkarpaĩ, ãtkarpos ‘schnitzel”; krapštý ti ‘scratch, stochern” (onomatopoeic word?); Ltv. cḕ ̨ rpu, cìrpt ‘shave, shear”, cir̃pe f. ‘sickle”; Iterat. kǜ rpî t ‘scratch, die Erde aufwerfen” (compare O.N. harfr, herfi); O.Pruss. kerpetis “cranium” (compare O.Ind. karpara-); with s-: Ltv. šḱ ērpê t “lawn schneiden”, šḱ ērpis “Pflugmesser”, šḱ ērpele “wooden splinter”, šḱ irpta ‘scharte”; with zero grade i: Lith. skir̃pstas “Rũster”, O.Pruss. skerptus ds. (after den gesägten Blättern), Lith. skir̃pstus “Rotbuche”; O.C.S. črě pъ ‘shard” (in den neueren Slav. Sprachen partly also “cranium”); presumably also Proto-Slav. *čъrpǫ, čer(p)ti in O.C.S. črъpǫ, črě ti “ scoop “ (“with a shard Wasser scoop “); Russ. dial. čerp ‘sickle” probably contaminated from červ and serp m. ds.; compare also kerǝp- “rag” above S. 581. E. (s)krē-m-, (s)krǝ-m-: Welsh cramen f. ‘scurf, scab” (with -mm-), Bret. crammen, cremmen ds. (das -mmexpressive or from *-b-m-); M.Ir. screm f. “Oberfläche, skin” (with -mm-); afränk. *scramasaks in “cultris validis quos vulgo scramasaxos vocant” (Gregor v. Tours), compare also scramis (besides scutis, spatis, lanceis, sagittis ) in the Lex Visigothorum; M.H.G. schram f.” scratch, Schwertwunde”, m. “Felsspalt, hole”, schramen “tear open”; besides with mm : M.L.G. schram (-mm-) m. “Ritze, incisure “, schramme f. “Ritze, scratch “ (out of it Ger. Schramme); ablaut. O.Ice. skrüma “wound, scratch; axe”; Lith. krãmas, Ltv. krama “ crust, scab, eschar “; Lith. krim̃sti “ gnaw, plague”, Ltv. krìmst “ gnaw, klauben”; Church Slavic pokromь “margo panni”, Russ. kromá “Brotschnitte, edge”, Church Slavic ukromь adv. ‘singulatim”(“*abgetrennt”), O.C.S. kromě adv. “außen, outside “; ablaut. Russ. dial. kremь f. “break, section of Waldes”; presumably O.C.S. kremy, kremenь “Feuerstein”; Ltv. krems ds., ablaut. krams. F. (s)ker-s-: Hom. ἀκερσεκόμης “with ungeschorenen Haaren”; Att. κουρά̄ “das Abscheren the hair”; κουρίς, -ίδος f. “razor”, κούριμος “geschoren”, κουρεύς “barber” etc., κουρίξ “by den Haaren fassend”, κορσόν κορμόν Hes., κορσόω ‘schere”, κορσωτός “geschoren” etc.; Att. inschr. κουρον “lignum sectum”; αἱμακουρίαι “Blutopfer”, κούρειον “a sacrificial animal “; M.Ir. Welsh etc. corr “verkũmmert, dwarfish “ (*korso-); Toch. A kärṣ t-, В kärst- “abschneiden, destroy”; Hitt. karš-, karšii̯ a- “abschneiden, verstũmmeln” etc. II. i-basis skerī̆-, skrē̆ i-, skrī̆- “cut, clip, divide” also particularly “ through Sieben Grobes and Feines divide”; see above Gk. κείρω, καρῆναι, Lith. skiriù. α) Gk. κρί̄νω (*κρῐν-ι̯ω, compare Fut . κρῐνῶ, and Lesb. κρίννω) ‘scheide, unterscheide, entscheide”, participle κριτός; κρίμνον “ coarse meal, flour” (“das Gesiebte”), κρῖμα, κρίμα n. “ verdict, judgement”, κριτής m. “judge”, κρίσις f. “ verdict “, διακριδόν “ separate “; κρησέρα “feines Sieb”(derivative from *κρῆσις, *krē[i]-tis “crētiō, Sieben”); Lat. cernō, -ere ‘sichten, divide; distinct wahrnehmen (distinguish, discern), erkennen” (*crĭ-nō); certus (= κριτός) “geschieden, entschieden, certainly, surely”, perf. crē-vī- (whereupon previously crētum), ex-crē-mentum “Ausscheidung”, screa (*skrēi̯ ü) “Auswurf”, screüre ‘sich räuspern”; discrīmen “trennender Abstand, Zwischenraum; Unterscheidung; entscheidender, kritischer instant, eye blink”, crībrum ‘sieb, Durchschlag” (*krē̆ i-dhrom); O.Ir. criathar (*krē̆ i-tro-) ‘sieb”, O.Welsh cruitr ds. (Welsh crwydr “das Hin- and hergehen, Wandern”), Corn. croider, M.Bret. croezr Bret. krouer ‘sieb”; Welsh go-grynu ‘sieben” (*upokri- nō), Bret. gourner ‘sieb”, Welsh gwa-gr, gogr ds.; Gaul.-rom. crinare ‘split”, oberItal. crena “cleft, fissure”, etc.; about Ir. crīch “limit, boundary, Gebiet”, Welsh crip, crib, Corn. Bret. krib “comb”, see above S. 619; O.E. hrīdder, hrīddel ‘sieb”, O.H.G. rītera, Ger. Reiter “ coarse Sieb” (*krē̆ i- or *krī-dhrom); Goth. hrains (*kroini-), O.Ice. hreinn, O.S. hrēn(i), O.H.G. hreini “pure”, Ger. rein, dial. “ fineground, sieved “; Bal.-Slav. *krei̯ō ‘slit, separate, scheide” in Ltv. krijât “flay”, krija f. “ bark, outer covering of a tree “, Lith. krìjas m. ‘siebreifen”, pl. krìjos “bast, bark”, skrìjos ‘siebreifen”; Maybe Alb. krasit “cut”, Alb. kreh (*kre-sko) “comb, dress the hair”, [common Alb. -sk- > -hphonetic mutation], kryje “head (with hair)”. Proto-Slav.. *krojǫ, *krojiti (previous causative) in Church Slavic krojiti “περιτέμνειν, - σχίζειν, dissecüre”, Russ. krojú, krojítь “cut, clip, carve, slit; corn, grain sieben”; Proto-Slav.. *krajь (Bal.-Slav. *krōi̯ a- m.) in O.C.S. krajь “edge, bank, border, shore”, Russ. kraj “edge, region; end”, krájnij “äußerst”; with ablaut O.C.S. iskrь “nahe”; Proto-Slav.. *krida in O.Sor. křida, nsorb. kśida f. ‘sieb”. β) (d-present?) (s)kreid- in: M.Ir. scrissid “cuts, slices” (*skrid-t-); Goth. dis-skreitan “tear trans.”, dis-skritnan “tear intr.”, Ger. Swiss schrīssen, schreißen, bO.Ir. schritzen “ rend, schlitzen”, schritz “crack”; O.S. hrītan or hrītian “ rend, ritzen, schreiben”, O.S. Run. hrita “ritzen, carve “. γ) (s)krei-t-: O.E. mid-hriðre n. “Zwerchfell”; O.Fris. mid-hrith(ere) ds. δ) Labial extensions: (s)kerībh- in Gk. σκαρῑφάομαι and σκαρῑφεύω ‘scratch, ritze auf, einen Umriß”, σκάρῑφος m. ‘stylus, Umriß, Skizze”; Lat. scrībō, -ere “with a stylus graben, einzeichnen, schreiben”, Osc. scriftas nom. pl. ‘scriptae”, Umbr. screihtor ‘scripti”; Lat. Lwe. are O.H.G. scrīban, O.S.skrīƀan, O.Fris. skrīfa ‘schreiben” and die originally kirchlichen words O.E. scrīfan “a punishment, esp. eine kirchliche penance, atonement auferlegen”, O.Ice. skript “Beichte, punishment “; unclear is das p (= bb) in M.Ir. scrīp(a)id “kratzt”; with IE -p-: O.Ice. hrīfa ‘scratch, scrape, scratch”; hrīfa f. “ rake “, O.Fris. hrīvia, Dutch rijven “ rake, rake “, O.E. gehrīfnian “abreißen”; lett skrīpâ t ‘scratch, scrape, scribble; einschreiben”, skrīpsts “krummes Schnitzmesser”, skrīpa “eingeritzter stripe”. III. u-basis (s)keru-, (s)kreu-, compare perhaps Lith. kir̃vis “axe”, Russ. červь ‘sickle” etc.; O.E.scréawa m. ‘spitzmaus”, scierfe-mūs ds.: (s)kreut-: Gk. κρουτεῖται “kernt from” Hes.; Lat. scrūtillus “venter suillus condita farte expletus”, dial. scrōtum “Hodensack”, hyperurbanisiert scrautum “ quiver “ (scrūta “junk” from Gk. γρύ̄τη “junk”, as scrōfa from γρομφάς); scrūtor, -ürī “untersuchen, durchstöbern”; M.Welsh ysgrud ‘skelett” (*skrou-to-), Loth RC. 43, 166 f.; O.H.G. scrōtan “hew, hit, cut, clip, schroten”; also “dress zuschneiden” (hence Schröder, Schröter), scrōt “cut” (M.H.G. schrolle “clod of earth” from *skruð-lá-??), O.E. scrēadian ‘schälen, abschneiden”, *scrēad(e) f. ‘stũck Zeug”, skrūd n. “dress” = O.Ice. skrūð n. “kostbares Zeug, dress”; (without s-: O.Ice. hrjōða “leeren, vertreiben, verheeren”, hrjōðr “Vernichter”); O.H.G. scrutōn, scrodōn, scrutilōn “erforschen, durchforschen”, scrod ‘scrutatio”, and Goth. and-hruskan “nachforschen” (*krū̆ t-skō); here probably with NO.S. and auslaut voiced-nonaspirated O.Pruss. scrundos f. pl. ‘scissors”. (s)keru-p-, (s)kreu-p-: Lat. scrūpus ‘scharfer, spitzer stone “, scrūpulus ‘spitziges small stone “ (scrīpulus nachscrīptus) and (as scrūpulum) “kleinster Teil eines Gewichtes or Maßes; ängstliche Genauigkeit (as “auf spitzen Steinen going”), Skrupel”, scrūpeus ‘steinig”; perhaps as “kratzend” = Swe. skroflig “ uneven, rough, hoarse” etc.; Pol. skorupa etc. ‘shard”.
    References: WP. I 422, II 573 ff., WH. I 170 f., 172 f., 198, 205 f., 274, 316 f., II 498 ff., Trautmann 117, 119, 128 ff., 141, 265 ff.;
    See also: compare also kreup- above S. 623.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.


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